Rehabilitation

Rehabilitation

Juvenile rehabilitation centers should address treatment needs, skill development and successful re-integration of juveniles into the society

Juvenile Crime

Juvenile Crime

All juveniles have individual strengths that can be identified, built on, and employed to prevent future delinquency

Youth Activities

Youth Activities

Engaging a community and neighborhood that promote and foster healthy activities for juveniles

Life-Skills

Life-Skills

Availability of economic and other resources exposes juveniles in attaining multiple experiences that supports their life-skills

Family Support

Family Support

Participation in shared activities between youth and family (including siblings and parents) is key to positive re-integration of juveniles

 

Risk & Protective factors

What are Risk and Protective Factors?

  • A risk factor is anything that increases the probability that a person will suffer harm.
  • A protective factor is something that decreases the potential harmful effect of a risk factor.
    In the context of youth involved or at risk of involvement with the juvenile justice system, risk factors can be considered to be those conditions associated with a higher likelihood of delinquency or juvenile justice system contact; protective factors are those conditions which lessen this likelihood.

picx_2Types of Protective and Risk Factors
Risk and protective factors for child delinquency have been identified in several domains:

  • Individual
  • Family
  • Peers
  • School, neighbourhood, and community

Information below provides examples of risk and protective factors by domain.

Domain: Individual
Risk Factors

  • Early antisocial behavior and emotional factors such as low behavioral inhibitions
  • Poor cognitive development
  • Hyperactivity

Protective Factors

  • High IQ
  • Positive social skills
  • Willingness to please adults
  • Religious and club affiliations

Domain: Family
Risk Factors

  • Inadequate or inappropriate child rearing practices,
  • Home discord
  • Maltreatment and abuse
  • Parental antisocial history
  • Poverty
  • Exposure to repeated family violence
  • Divorce
  • A high level of parent-child conflict
  • A low level of positive parental involvement

Protective Factors

  • Participation in shared activities between youth and family (including siblings and parents)
  • Providing the forum to discuss problems and issues with parents
  • Availability of economic and other resources to expose youth to multiple experiences
  • The presence of a positive adult in the family to mentor and be supportive

Domain: Peer
Risk Factors

  • Spending time with peers who engage in delinquent or risky behavior
  • Gang involvement
  • Less exposure to positive social opportunities because of bullying and rejection

Protective Factors

  • Positive and healthy friends to associate with
  • Engagement in healthy and safe activities with peers during leisure time (e.g., clubs, sports, other recreation)

Domain: School/Community
Risk Factors

  • Poor academic performance
  • Enrollment in schools that are unsafe and fail to address the academic and social and emotional needs of children and youth
  • Low commitment to school
  • Low educational aspirations
  • Poor motivation
  • Social disorganization in the community in which the youth lives
  • High crime neighborhoods

Protective Factors

  • Enrollment in schools that address not only the academic needs of youth but also their social and emotional needs and learning
  • Schools that provide a safe environment
  • A community and neighborhood that promote and foster healthy activities for youth

It is important to note the following:

  1. No single risk factor leads a young person to delinquency.
  2. Risk factors “do not operate in isolation and typically are cumulative: the more risk factors that [youth] are exposed to, the greater likelihood that they will experience negative outcomes, including delinquency.”
  3. When the risk factors a youth is exposed to cross multiple domains, the likelihood of delinquency increases at an even greater rate.
  4. Different risk factors may also be more likely to influence youth at different points in their development. For example, peer risk factors typically occur later in a youth’s development than individual and family factors.
  5. Because risk and protective factors are dynamic in nature, service providers and agencies should adopt ongoing assessments of these conditions.

While youth may face a number of risk factors it is important to remember that everyone has strengths and is capable of being resilient: “All children and families have individual strengths that can be identified, built on, and employed” to prevent future delinquency and justice system involvement.